NCERT Class 12 Physics Electrostatic Potential And Capacitance
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ELECTROSTATIC POTENTIAL AND CAPACITANCE
In Chapters 6 and 8 (Class XI), the notion of potential energy was introduced. When an external force does work in taking a body from a point to another against a force like spring force or gravitational force, that work gets stored as potential energy of the body. When the external force is removed, the body moves, gaining kinetic energy and losing an equal amount of potential energy. The sum of kinetic and potential energies is thus conserved. Forces of this kind are called conservative forces. Spring force and gravitational force are examples of conservative forces.
Coulomb force between two (stationary) charges, like the gravitational force, is also a conservative force. This is not surprising, since both have inverse-square dependence on distance and differ mainly in the proportionality constants – the masses in the gravitational law are replaced by charges in Coulomb’s law. Thus, like the potential energy of a mass in a gravitational field, we can define electrostatic potential energy of a charge in an electrostatic field. Consider an electrostatic field E due to some charge configuration. First, for simplicity, consider the field E due to a charge Q placed at the origin.
Now, imagine that we bring a test charge q from a point R to a point P against the repulsive force on it due to the charge Q. With reference to Fig. 2.1, this will happen if Q and q are both positiveor both negative. For definiteness, let us take Q, q > 0. Two remarks may be made here. First, we assume that the test charge q is so small that it does not disturb the original configuration, namely the charge Q at the origin (or else, we keep Q fixed at the origin by some unspecified force). Second, in bringing the charge q from R to P, we apply an external force Fext just enough to counter the repulsive electric force FE (i.e, Fext= –FE). This means there is no net force on or acceleration of the charge q when it is brought from R to P, i.e., it is brought with infinitesimally slow constant speed.
In this situation, work done by the external force is the negative of the work done by the electric force, and gets fully stored in the form of potential energy of the charge q. If the external force is removed on reaching P, the electric force will take the charge away from Q – the stored energy (potential energy) at P is used to provide kinetic energy to the charge q in such a way that the sum of the kinetic and potential energies is conserved. Thus, work done by external forces in moving a charge q from R to P.
2.1 Two charges 5 × 10–8 C and –3 × 10–8 C are located 16 cm apart. At what point(s) on the line joining the two charges is the electric potential zero? Take the potential at infinity to be zero.
2.2 A regular hexagon of side 10 cm has a charge 5 μC at each of its vertices. Calculate the potential at the centre of the hexagon.
2.3 Two charges 2 μC and –2 μC are placed at points A and B 6 cm apart.
(a) Identify an equipotential surface of the system.
(b) What is the direction of the electric field at every point on this surface?
2.4 A spherical conductor of radius 12 cm has a charge of 1.6 × 10–7C distributed uniformly on its surface. What is the electric field
(a) inside the sphere
(b) just outside the sphere
(c) at a point 18 cm from the centre of the sphere?
2.5 A parallel plate capacitor with air between the plates has a capacitance of 8 pF (1pF = 10–12 F). What will be the capacitance if the distance between the plates is reduced by half, and the space between them is filled with a substance of dielectric constant 6?
2.6 Three capacitors each of capacitance 9 pF are connected in series.
(a) What is the total capacitance of the combination?
(b) What is the potential difference across each capacitor if the combination is connected to a 120 V supply?
2.7 Three capacitors of capacitances 2 pF, 3 pF and 4 pF are connected in parallel.
(a) What is the total capacitance of the combination?
(b) Determine the charge on each capacitor if the combination is connected to a 100 V supply.
2.8 In a parallel plate capacitor with air between the plates, each plate has an area of 6 × 10–3 m2 and the distance between the plates is 3 mm. Calculate the capacitance of the capacitor. If this capacitor is connected to a 100 V supply, what is the charge on each plate of the capacitor?
2.9 Explain what would happen if in the capacitor given in Exercise
2.8, a 3 mm thick mica sheet (of dielectric constant = 6) were inserted between the plates,
(a) while the voltage supply remained connected.
(b) after the supply was disconnected.
2.10 A 12pF capacitor is connected to a 50V battery. How much electrostatic energy is stored in the capacitor?
2.11 A 600pF capacitor is charged by a 200V supply. It is then disconnected from the supply and is connected to another uncharged 600 pF capacitor. How much electrostatic energy is lost in the process?
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