NCERT Class 9 Science Lab Manual Instructions
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Experiments play a crucial role in the progress of science. A large number of path breaking discoveries and inventions have been possible through investigations done usually in laboratories. The experimental work is, therefore, an essential component of any course in science. A course on practical work in science curricula in schools at the secondary stage is essentially designed to acquaint the learners with the basic tools and techniques used in a science laboratory. It also envisages developing problem-solving skills. These skills help the learner to acquire ability to identify a problem, to design and to set up the experiment, to collect and analyse data through experiment, and to interpret data to arrive at plausible solution in due course of time. These are, in fact, the long term objectives of laboratory work and become the nucleus of the philosophy of construction of knowledge by the learner.
A school science laboratory is a place where basic experimental skills are learnt by systematically performing a set of prescribed and suitably designed experiments. Performing experiments by one’s own hands is not only a thrilling experience but is also important because it entails learning by doing. It also facilitates understanding the concepts of science. The experiments and project work suggested at the secondary stage intend to develop basic skills of measurement; handling of some common measuring instruments, equipment and chemicals; setting simple apparatus; handling microscope and preparing slides; making observations; collecting data and presenting it in appropriate format; interpreting and drawing conclusions; and preparation of report.
There are certain rules and regulations that every student must be familiar with before undertaking practical work in a laboratory. A student is required to be acquainted with the general facilities and the equipment available in the laboratory and follow the rules and regulations. Generally, in the beginning of the session, the teacher takes the students around the laboratory to familiarise them with the general facilities available in the laboratory and informs them about certain do’s and don’ts while performing the experiments in the laboratory.
Laboratory Manual in Science for Class IX is an exercise to familiarise pupil with the general facilities, equipment, measuring instruments, chemicals and glassware, specimen available in a school science laboratory. The precautions and measures for safety to be observed in a laboratory are also mentioned. The format adopted for description of experiments includes the aim of the experiment, theory or the principle involved in the experiment, list of materials required on the basis of method to perform the experiment, steps involved in performing the experiment, recording observations, the formula required for calculations and stating the results. An emphasis on drawing conclusions and initiating discussions is also made. Though the precautions that are necessary to be taken care of in performing the experiments are merged with the procedure itself, these along with the possible sources of errors are also mentioned separately with more reasoning. There could be some certain prerequisites for preparing the laboratory for performing an experiment, and additional information to teachers on a particular experiment. Such issues have been raised in almost all experiments in column titled Note for the Teacher. Authors have also used this column to communicate with teachers. It is hoped that teachers would find this column useful. The method used in the experiment may also be used to extend understanding in some applications.
A column titled Applications has been added occasionally for addressing such issues. At the end of every experiment some thought provoking questions are also included. These questions are based on the procedures involved in the experiment. Many questions provoke pupil for relating their everyday life experiences with scientific principles. It is believed that such questions will be helpful in inculcating scientific temper and attitude among students. In these write-ups, it can be seen that the columns such as Materials Required and Note for the Teacher often address the issues related with the alternate materials and even alternate procedures that can be used for performing the experiment. It is however important to mention that the suggestions given for conducting the experiments are suggestive and may be modified depending on the facilities available in a particular situation. For example, if the material suggested for a particular experiment is not available, a suitable alternate material may be used. In addition to these experiments, a student may also conduct any other experiment of interest. However, it is important that every student of science must pay proper attention to the practical work and should try to acquire basic laboratory skills and develop a keen sense of observation and acquire a sound training in the reporting of the work done. Many experiments are so chosen that these can be performed using low cost and locally available materials without loosing the rigor of science. The suggestions for maintaining the equipment have also been given wherever possible. Questions at the end of each experiment may be dealt with meticulously and must be discussed with peers and teachers to arrive at appropriate and convincing answers
Please refer to attached file for NCERT Class 9 Science Lab Manual Instructions