# NCERT Class 7 Science Motion and Time

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**13 Motion and Time**

In Class VI, you learnt about different types of motions. You learnt that a motion could be along a straight line, it could be circular or periodic. Can you recall these three types of motions? Table 13.1 gives some common examples of motions. Identify the type of motion in each case. It is common experience that the motion of some objects is slow while that of some others is fast

**13.1 SLOW OR FAST**

We know that some vehicles move faster than others. Even the same vehicle may move faster or slower at different times. Make a list of ten objects moving along a straight path. Group the motion of these objects as slow and fast. How did you decide which object is moving slow and which one is moving fast. If vehicles are moving on a road in the same direction, we can easily tell which one of them is moving faster than the other.

**13.2 SPEED**

You are probably familiar with the word speed. In the examples given above, a higher speed seems to indicate that a given distance has been covered in a shorter time, or a larger distance covered in a given time.

The most convenient way to find out which of the two or more objects is moving faster is to compare the distances moved by them in a unit time. Thus, if we know the distance covered by two buses in one hour, we can tell which one is slower. We call the distance covered by an object in a unit time as the speed of the object. When we say that a car is moving with a speed of 50 kilometres per hour, it implies that it will cover a distance of 50 kilometres in one hour. However, a car seldom moves with a constant speed for one hour. In fact, it starts moving slowly and then picks up speed. So, when we say that the car has a speed of 50 kilometres per hour, we usually consider only the total distance covered by it in one hour. We do not bother whether the car has been moving with a constant speed or not during thathour. The speed calculated here is actually the average speed of the car. In this book we shall use the term speed for average speed. So, for us the speed is the total distance covered divided by the total time taken.

We can determine the speed of a given object once we can measure the time taken by it to cover a certain distance. In Class VI you learnt how to measure distances. But, how do we measure time? Let us find out.

**Exercises**

**1. Classify the following as motion along a straight line, circular or oscillatory motion:**

(i) Motion of your hands while running.

(ii) Motion of a horse pulling a cart on a straight road.

(iii) Motion of a child in a merry-go-round.

(iv) Motion of a child on a see-saw.

(v) Motion of the hammer of an electric bell.

(vi) Motion of a train on a straight bridge.

**2. Which of the following are not correct?**

(i) The basic unit of time is second.

(ii) Every object moves with a constant speed.

(iii) Distances between two cities are measured in kilometres.

(iv) The time period of a given pendulum is not constant.

(v) The speed of a train is expressed in m/h.

**3. A simple pendulum takes 32 s to complete 20 oscillations. What is the time period of the pendulum?**

**4. The distance between two stations is 240 km. A train takes 4 hours to cover this distance. Calculate the speed of the train.**

**5. The odometer of a car reads 57321.0 km when the clock shows the time 08:30 AM. What is the distance moved by the car, if at 08:50 AM, the odometer reading has changed to 57336.0 km? Calculate the speed of the car in km/min during this time. Express the speed in km/h also.**

**6. Salma takes 15 minutes from her house to reach her school on a bicycle. If the bicycle has a speed of 2 m/s, calculate the distance between her house and the school.**

**7. Show the shape of the distance-time graph for the motion in the following cases:**

(i) A car moving with a constant speed.

(ii) A car parked on a side road.

**Please refer to attached file for NCERT Class 7 Science Motion and Time**