NCERT Class 10 Science Lab Manual Projects
NCERT Class 10 Science Lab Manual Projects. Download NCERT Chapters and Books in pdf format. Easy to print and read. Copies of these textbooks may be downloaded and used as textbooks or for reference. Refer to other chapters and books at other links (NCERT now providing you soft copies of all textbooks of all subjects from class first to twelfth online).
A project work is a planned and definitely formulated piece of study involving a task or problem taken up by the learner, either individually or in a group, to supplement and apply classroom and laboratory transactions. It follows the approach of Learning by Doing and Learning by Living. It is often experienced that there is no time in a tight school timetable for all the content of science curriculum to be applied. Prescribed textbooks and laboratory manuals primarily envisage the knowledge and concepts that are considered appropriate for learners at a certain stage. These provide wide body of knowledge and understanding. While project work aims to call on pupils’ capability to apply such knowledge and understanding, to select that might be useful in a particular instance, and to use it in the design of a decisionmaking process. Thus a project work is an attempt to promote creativity and the spirit of enquiry in learners.
Project work is a more or less open-ended activity and depends on the nature of the task. For selecting a task, the situations which can raise suitable questions amongst the students are identified. Such situations may be arrived at through libraries, laboratories, magazines, discussions, field trips, print and electronic media, internet etc. Students may choose a project depending on their abilities, enthusiasm, and interest. However the complexity of the project, availability of the material resources, and time available to furnish the project shall always influence the selection of task. The working on a chosen project must first include the tentative objectives that might be attained. The execution of the task must be properly planned. It is advised that the project team keeps a complete record of work including the choice of project, planning, discussions held, distribution of work assigned to different team members, references and books consulted, observations, difficulties faced, guidance sought etc. The report of project may include the title, theory/hypothesis, objectives, materials required, procedure, observations, results and discussions, references etc.
TYPES OF PROJECT
The nature of a project work may be categorised on the basis of tasks involved: (i) Practical tasks – in which the emphasis is given on actual construction of material such as model making. (ii) Appreciation – in this type direct or vicarious experiences, such as reading or listening stories etc. are involved. (iii) Problem-solving – in which the purpose is to solve a problem involving the intellectual processes. (iv) Master of a skill, knowledge – in which the emphasis is aimed to attain a certain degree of skill such as laboratory demonstrations directly from either the textbooks or laboratory manuals.
The project work aims to apply pupils’ knowledge and understanding daily life problems, promotes habit of critical thinking and helps the students to adopt the scientific method of working. Learners can perform at their own convenience. They also learn to plan and execute their ideas within a given timeframe. While appreciating learning science by doing and living, project work widens the mental ability of students. The students get an opportunity to learn several skills such as observation, reasoning, interpretation and inference, reporting etc. A project conducted in a group also promotes social interaction and cooperation among all the members.
Various approaches may be adopted while taking up a project work. Such approaches may be based upon modes like building an apparatus, project that involves experimentation, survey based projects, project based on observing nature, project through learner sheet, project based on use of available data, project based on field work, project based on exploration, project that generates information etc. Some projects based on these modes are suggested in the next section.
SOME SUGGESTIVE PROJECTS
1. Observe the moon. Observe the moon at the same time everyday for a month and note its shape, brightness and its elevation from the earth.
2. Preparing a triboelectric series. The triboelectric effect refers to a charge of electricity generated by friction (as by rubbing glass with silk). Collect several materials around you. Charge them by rubbing by taking different combinations.
3. Study of transmission of heat. Investigate parameters that can affect the transmission of heat.
4. Explore the habitation, plantation etc. in a pond/lake in your vicinity.
5. Survey water resources in your locality. How much water do we consume everyday? How much water is wasted due to leakage of taps in our homes?
6. How much water do we receive through rains (making of a water gauge)?
7. Create a weather chart.
8. I care my tree! How? Study of its morphology, growth, health, what does it need? Does it respond to affection? When will it die?
9. To study plant diversity in our town.
10. Classify flowering and non-flowering plants in our town.
11. To study roots of different plants.
12. To study seed sprouting time. Identify most favourable and most unfavorable conditions.
13. Listing of plants used for house-hold medicinal treatment. Which parts of them are most suitable for treating the ailment?
14. Energy management.
15. Water management.
16. Waste management in our locality/town/city.
17. Study of life cycle of an insect.
18. To study of soil. Its physical characteristics, pH, biological character, water holding capacity, porosity, erosion, air in soil, fertility, etc.
19. To study biodiversity (in your town or through encyclopedia).
20. To study colour of flowers.
21. To study leaf shapes.
22. To study the process of fermentation.
23. To study saps obtained from plants.
24. Birds of my town.
25. How do we collect honey?
26. Determination of age of a tree.
27. Measure wind speed at different heights – investigate effect of surrounding structures and vegetation.
28. Observations of natural fibers.
29. Absorption of heat by variety of clothes made of different fibers.
30. Effect of impurity on melting of ice.
31. Time taken in boiling of milk as a function of water quantity in it.
32. To study the minimum time interval between two flashes in camera after successive discharges. Hence investigate condition of the battery used in it.
33. Motion of different shaped objects (of the same material) through liquids.
34. Observations on a slinky.
Please refer to attached file for NCERT Class 10 Science Lab Manual Projects