CBSE Class 12 History Bhakti Sufi Traditions Changes in Religious Beliefs

CBSE Assignment for Class XII History -Bhakti Sufi Traditions Changes in Religious Beliefs. Based on CBSE and CCE guidelines. The students should read these basic concepts to gain perfection which will help him to get more marks in CBSE examination.

Bhakti and Sufi Tradition

Q1:-Discuss the ways in which the Alwars, Nayanars and Virashaivas expressed critiques of the caste systems.

Ans:- Some historians suggest that the Alvars and Nayanars initiated a movement of protest against the caste system and the dominance of Brahmanas or at least attempted to reform the system. To some extent this is corroborated by the fact that bhaktas hailed from diverse social backgrounds ranging from Brahmanas to artisans and cultivators and even from castes considered "untouchable".

* The twelfth century witnessed the emergence of a new movement in Karnataka, led by a Brahmana named Basavanna (1106-08). His followers were known as Virashaivas or Lingayats (Wearers of the linga).

* The Lingayats challenged the idea of caste and the pollution attributed to certain groups by Brahmanas. They also questioned the theory of rebirth. These won them followers amongst those who were marginalised within the Brahmanical social order.

* The Lingayats also encouraged certain practices disapproved in the Dharmashastras, such as postpuberty marriage and the remarriage of widows.

Q2:- Analyse, with illustrations, why bhakti and sufi thinkers adopted a variety of languages in which to express their opinions.

Ans:- Bhakti thinkers and different languages which were adopted by them to express their opinion.

(i) Early Bhakti Saints Pali, Prakarat Tamil and Malyalam etc. languages.

(ii) The Brahmans of South Indian put his views and ideas in Sanskrit and local languages.

(iii) Kabir's poems have survived in several languages and dialects, and some are composed the special languages of nirguna poets.

(iv) Baba Guru Nanak, Ravidas etc. composed their hymns in various languages such as Punjabi and Hindi etc.

(v) Mirabai compose her Bhajans in Rajsthani and Hindi.

(vi) Some saint of Maharastra and Gujarati uses Marathi and Gujarati language.

According to Sufi thinkers -

(i) Sufi thinkers also live with peoples. They uses serveral languages. They uses Hindvi or persian language.

(ii) Baba Farid used local language. Hindvi persian, Panjabi, Urdu and some other form of languages are also seen.

(iii) A different genre of Sufi poetry was composed in an around the town of Bijapur, Karnataka. These were short poems in Dakhani (a variant of Urdu) attributed to Chisthi Sufis who lived in this region during the 17th and 18th centuries.

(iv) Some Sufi saints give their pledge in Telgu, Malayalam languages.

Please refer to attached file for CBSE Class 12 History Bhakti Sufi Traditions Changes in Religious Beliefs

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